Tabel Referensi Lengkap Manajemen Paket Aplikasi di Linux

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Manajemen paket mungkin adalah fitur yang paling khas dari setiap distribusi Linux. Sementara tren saat ini di antara sebagian besar proyek-proyek besar adalah untuk menawarkan semacam tampilan yang dapat diklik di mana pengguna dapat memilih paket dan menginstalnya dengan klik mouse (misalnya Debian Synaptic atau Mandriva Drakrpm)


Selain itu, alat-alat manajemen paket cenderung berkembang, dengan fitur baru dan bahkan perintah baru ditambahkan ke setiap versi baru. Ini adalah mengapa kami membuat manajemen paket ini cheatsheet - kartu referensi yang mudah meliputi paling sering digunakan tugas manajemen paket dalam distribusi Linux dan FreeBSD.




Package Management Cheatsheet
Main distributions

The first table lists package management tasks in the four most popular distribution groups - Debian (including Ubuntu, Linux Mint, KNOPPIX, aptosid and other Debian derivatives), openSUSE, Fedora (including Red Hat Enterprise Linux, CentOS, Scientific Linux and other Fedora-based distributions), and Mandriva Linux and Mageia.

Task apt (deb)
Debian, Ubuntu
zypp (rpm)
openSUSE
yum (rpm)
Fedora, CentOS
urpmi (rpm)
Mandriva, Mageia
Managing software
Install new software from package repository apt-get install pkg zypper install pkg yum install pkg urpmi pkg
Install new software from package file dpkg -i pkg zypper install pkg yum localinstall pkg urpmi pkg
Update existing software apt-get install pkg zypper update -t package pkg yum update pkg urpmi pkg
Remove unwanted software apt-get remove pkg zypper remove pkg yum erase pkg urpme pkg
Updating the system
Update package list apt-get update
aptitude update
zypper refresh yum check-update urpmi.update -a
Update system apt-get upgrade
aptitude safe-upgrade
zypper update yum update urpmi --auto-select
Searching for packages
Search by package name apt-cache search pkg zypper search pkg yum list pkg urpmq pkg
Search by pattern apt-cache search pattern zypper search -t pattern pattern yum search pattern urpmq --fuzzy pkg
Search by file name apt-file search path zypper wp file yum provides file urpmf file
List installed packages dpkg -l zypper search -is rpm -qa rpm -qa
Configuring access to software repositories
List repositories cat /etc/apt/sources.list zypper repos yum repolist urpmq --list-media
Add repository (edit /etc/apt/sources.list) zypper addrepo path name (add repo to /etc/yum.repos.d/) urpmi.addmedia name path
Remove repository (edit /etc/apt/sources.list) zypper removerepo name (remove repo from /etc/yum.repos.d/) urpmi.removemedia media

Slackware and Slackware Based Distributions

The table below lists package management utilities found in Slackware Linux and other Slackware-based distributions. As stated by Patrick Volkerding on several occasions, Slackware is unlikely to ever have any advanced (i.e. dependency-resolving) package management tool, so all installation, upgrade and removal tasks continue to be performed with pkgtools, a set of very simple scripts that haven't changed much in years. Nevertheless, slackpkg, an advanced package management tool which for years had been relegated to the unsupported "extra" repository, was finally made part of Slackware Linux 12.2. It's worth noting that some popular Slackware derivatives, such as VectorLinux, have standardised on slapt-get, another third-party utility imitating the behaviour of Debian's APT, while Zenwalk Linux has introduced its own package management tool called netpkg.

Task pkgtools
Slackware
slackpkg
Slackware
slapt-get
Vector
netpkg
Zenwalk
Managing software
Install new software from package repository -- slackpkg install pkg slapt-get --install pkg netpkg pkg
Install new software from package file installpkg pkg slackpkg install pkg slapt-get --install pkg netpkg pkg
Update existing software upgradepkg pkg slackpkg upgrade pkg slapt-get --install pkg netpkg pkg
Remove unwanted software removepkg pkg slackpkg remove pkg slapt-get --remove pkg netpkg remove pkg
Updating the system
Update package list -- slackpkg update slapt-get --update (automatic)
Update system -- slackpkg upgrade-all slapt-get --upgrade netpkg upgrade
Searching for packages
Search by package name -- slackpkg search pkg slapt-get --search pkg netpkg pkg repo
Search by pattern -- slackpkg search pattern slapt-get --search pattern netpkg list | grep pattern
Search by file name -- -- -- netpkg file repo
List installed packages ls /var/log/packages/ ls /var/log/packages/ slapt-get --installed netpk list I
Configuring access to software repositories
List repositories -- cat /etc/slackpkg/mirrors cat /etc/slapt-get/slapt-getrc netpkg mirror
Add repository -- (edit /etc/slackpkg/mirrors) (edit /etc/slapt-get/slapt-getrc) (edit /etc/netpkg.conf)
Remove repository -- (edit /etc/slackpkg/mirrors) (edit /etc/slapt-get/slapt-getrc) (edit /etc/netpkg.conf)

Independent Linux Distributions

In the next group we have a few (mostly) independent distributions that have been gaining popularity in recent years. Sabayon Linux, although derived from Gentoo, has introduced its own command-line package management utility called equo. Arch Linux's Pacman has been around for a long time and it's often considered one of the fastest package management utilities around. Conary, developed by rPath and popularised by Foresight Linux, is a completely new approach to package management, created by well-known ex-Red Hat engineers with many years of package management experience. In contrast, PiSi, originally developed by Pardus Linux, is a relatively new utility.

Task equo
Sabayon
pacman
Arch
conary
rPath, Foresight
pisi
Pisi, SolusOS
Managing software
Install new software from package repository equo install pkg pacman -S pkg conary update pkg pisi install pkg
Install new software from package file equo install pkg pacman -U pkg conary update pkg pisi install pkg
Update existing software equo install pkg pacman -S pkg conary update pkg pisi install pkg
Remove unwanted software equo remove pkg pacman -R pkg conary erase pkg pisi remove pkg
Updating the system
Update package list equo update pacman -Sy pisi update-repo
Update system equo world pacman -Su conary updateall pisi upgrade
Searching for packages
Search by package name equo match pkg pacman -Ss pkg conary query pkg pisi search pkg
Search by pattern equo search pattern pacman -Ss pattern conary query pkg pisi search pkg
Search by file name equo belongs file pacman -Qo file conary query --path path pisi search-file path
List installed packages equo list pacman -Q conary query pisi list-installed
Configuring access to software repositories
List repositories equo repoinfo cat /etc/pacman.conf pisi list-repo
Add repository (edit /etc/pacman.conf) pisi add-repo name path
Remove repository (edit /etc/pacman.conf) pisi remove-repo name

Distribution Agnostic Package Management

Besides standard package management utilities that most distributions use as part of their systems, there are also some distro-agnostic ones that have been deployed with various levels of success in certain distributions. Smart, originally developed by Conectiva, hasn't been in the news lately, but some users seem to prefer it over Mandriva's urpmi or openSUSE's zypper (it also supports Debian and Slackware-based systems). More recently it is Fedora's PackageKit that has been gaining momentum as a way to manage packages across distributions and architectures. Now included in many other distributions, PackageKit's pkgcon command-line utility is effectively a unified front-end to the native package management tools of Fedora, Ubuntu, openSUSE, Mandriva and other distributions.

Task smart
Mandriva, openSUSE
pkgcon
Fedora, Ubuntu, openSUSE, Mandriva
Managing software
Install new software from package repository smart install pkg pkcon install pkg
Install new software from package file smart install pkg pkcon install-file pkg
Update existing software smart install pkg pkcon update pkg
Remove unwanted software smart remove pkg pkcon remove pkg
Updating the system
Update package list smart update pkcon refresh
Update system smart upgrade pkcon upgrade
Searching for packages
Search by package name smart search pkg pkcon search name pkg
Search by pattern smart search pattern pkcon search details pattern
Search by file name smart query file pkcon what-provides file
List installed packages smart query --installed --
Configuring access to software repositories
List repositories smart channel --show pkcon repo-list
Add repository smart channel --add name path
Remove repository smart channel --remove name

Source Based Distributions

Next, a table for source-based distributions. Gentoo's Portage is well-documented and widely used, but other distributions that are designed to be built from scratch don't often feature in the Linux media, so their package management systems are not particularly well-known. Sorcerer, which existed even before Gentoo Linux was conceived, uses Bash scripts to "cast spells" or download, install and compile packages. Sorcerer was later forked into Lunar Linux and Source Mage GNU/Linux, both of which are included in the table below. Unfortunately, Sorcerer doesn't offer much in terms of online documentation so it has been omitted for now.

Task portage
Gentoo
lunar
Lunar
sorcery
Source Mage
Managing software
Install new software from package repository emerge pkg lin pkg cast pkg
Install new software from package file
Update existing software emerge pkg lin pkg cast pkg
Remove unwanted software emerge -aC pkg lrm pkg dispel pkg
Updating the system
Update package list emerge --sync lin moonbase scribe update
Update system emerge -NuDa world lunar update sorcery upgrade
Searching for packages
Search by package name emerge --search pkg lvu search pkg gaze search -name pkg
Search by pattern emerge --search pattern lvu search pattern gaze search pattern
Search by file name equery belongs pkg gaze from file
List installed packages qlist -I lvu installed gaze installed
Configuring access to software repositories
List repositories layman -L -- scribe index
Add repository layman -a repo -- scribe add repo
Remove repository layman -d repo -- scribe remove repo

FreeBSD

Finally, a table for FreeBSD, a popular operating system offering both binary and source package management.

Task packages
FreeBSD < 10.0
packages
FreeBSD 10.0+
ports
FreeBSD
Managing software
Install new software from package repository pkg_add -r package pkg install package cd port_dir && make && make install
Install new software from package file pkg_add path_to_package pkg add path_to_package --
Update existing software pkg_add path_to_package pkg install path_to_package portupgrade -R pkg
Remove unwanted software pkg_delete pkg pkg remove pkg pkg_delete pkg
Updating the system freebsd-update fetch install freebsd-update fetch install portsnap fetch install
Update package list pkg update csup -L 2 -h cvsup.FreeBSD.org path_to_supfile
portsnap update
Update system pkg upgrade portupgrade -a
portmanager -u
portmaster -a
Searching for packages
Search by package name pkg search package cd /usr/ports && make search pkg
Search by pattern pkg search pattern cd /usr/ports && make search pattern
Search by file name
List installed packages pkg_info pkg info pkg_info
Configuring access to software repositories
List repositories -- -- --
Add repository -- -- --
Remove repository -- -- --

sumber: DistroWatch.com.

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